DIY Part 2 The business case and business models
By Jennifer Wilson
The aim of this chapter is to help you make the business case for your project and identify which business models best suit the concept and your business.
Making the business case
This is the task of defining why it’s worth doing your project. Be it yourself, a production partner, publisher or broadcaster, every stakeholder in your project will need to be convinced that there is a sound business justification for developing this particular concept into a product or experience for a particular market. Making the business case involves in-depth research on the target market, considering how you will reach them and with what business model. The New Media Industry and Marketing and distribution chapters will also be useful for this phase.
What is your target market?
Thanks to the proliferation of studies and media polls published on the Internet, it is possible to carry out at least rudimentary market research to demonstrate your knowledge of your target market.
As well as research companies like Nielsen [http://www.nielsen-online.com/] and McKinsey [http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/], relevant industry associations are a great place to start. For interactive media see Australian Interactive Media Industry Association [www.aimia.com.au].; games, Games Development Association of Australia [www.gdaa.com.au]; mobile, AIMIA Mobile Industry Group [www.aimia.com.au/i-cms?page=1093]; and publishing see Australian Publishing Association [www.publishers.asn.au] and especially the Interactive Entertainment Association of Australia [www.ieaa.com.au/].
For international markets look for equivalent organisations overseas, read technology blogs and magazines and keep up to date with developments in the area you are operating in (online, mobile, console games, etc.). Markets outlined in the previous chapter are variously described in geographic, demographic and interest terms, so you should be able to define your market using these kinds of headings.
How do you reach it?
Follow the people you want as your followers. When developing an online educational video game for teenage girls, for example, it is essential to understand their media usage patterns including how they use the Internet, other media (magazines, TV, film) that interest them and competing products. A product for teenage girls must reach them where they are, on their mobiles, on MySpace or Facebook, and increasingly not in front of the TV.
Reaching an audience means not advertising at them but connecting with them. If you think about your marketing and distribution strategy earlier rather than later you can use the various platforms available to reach your target market where they are and engage them meaningfully. The KateModern property mentioned in the Introduction is a perfect illustration of how this works. This drama is now broadcast on the social networking site Bebo, where its target audience hangs out.
What is your business model?
At a seminar just this week, someone suggested that business models in this new space ‘will come and go like waves’. I think this summed it up well. There are new models and revenue and investment options evolving all the time. You just need to be aware of what’s available and what suits your project and your objectives.This is the part of the equation most in flux in the new media industry and currently most hotly debated. Everyone will want to know ‘What’s your business model?’. Factors include audience, medium, frequency of access, and duration of access. Bear in mind that it may be possible to fund the service in the beginning from investment (see further on in this section) and then finetune the business models as the audience and the service interact. For example, it is important not to spring sudden price increases (or even apply a price to a service that was previously free) without warning. Instead, it is preferable for services to have an idea of what their business models might be from the outset – even if they are to be applied at a later time.
Jim Shomos, 2008
If we called this Guide ‘Don’t panic!’ – it would reference the fear and uncertainly of many writers and creative people when faced with the idea of making money. While the quality of your craft is critical – so is feeding yourself, and if you are able to maintain your creative integrity while still making enough money to live, then it never even feels like a job. Whether you are employed as a writer, looking for someone to back you, or planning to take your beautiful baby to market yourself – it is always useful to have an idea of where the money might come from. There is nothing scary about business models. This section should help you understand where the money can come from and allow you to start thinking about what models might be right for you.
Business models: revenue sustainabilitySimply put, the business model for a product, content or service is the manner in which the service will earn its keep. It is the answer to the questions ‘Who pays for what, to whom, why and how?’ While some digital products (content and services) are offered with no clear revenue return, income or funding model, if a product is to be viable, continue to be offered and potentially grow, it normally needs to generate revenue to pay for its costs. While there are exceptions to this, it is important that the business models for a product, content or service are understood and set from the beginning – even if sustainability itself is some way off.
Business models are the methods and form by which revenue will be earned.
The money usually comes from one of three sources: someone pays you to create something (fee for service); the users pay (transaction or subscription); or someone pays you for access to the users (advertising, sponsorship, affiliate marketing, etc.). The four most common business models are:
- Transaction: we pay something as a one-off cost. We buy a book or a pair of shoes or a flight; online we buy a music track, access to a piece of content (article, story) or some furniture for our online avatar.
- Subscription: we pay a regular, recurring fee for a service to be provided such as subscription TV, a phone service or a newspaper. Note that we might also pay a usage fee, which is a really a transaction fee for what we use, such as the number of calls we have made. Digital subscription fees provide access to content and services over the period of the subscription and may allow unlimited access or an additional ‘usage’ fee when the included amount is exceeded.
- Advertising: we pay for something by giving it our time and attention. In printed, broadcast and televised media, it is not usually possible to determine if time and attention are being given by the user (as has been assumed by the advertiser); however in the digital environment this is possible through the user’s response. Advertising is increasingly common in all forms of digital content.
- Sponsorship: really a form of advertising, akin to ‘subscription’ advertising. An advertiser pays a fixed sum of money to be promoted (and thus achieve time and attention from the user) for a fixed period of time or the life of a product. We see sponsorship in sports (Qantas Wallabies, Telstra Stadium) and television programs (brought to you by …) and also in the digital space.
In addition, there are other variants of these business models (affiliate, freemium, product placement) worth considering that will be looked at in more detail later.
It is important to remember that business models can change over time, that there may be more that one business model in play at any one time (in fact this is a strength) and that business models might not work from the very beginning, but may require time before they generate reasonable returns.
The rare exceptionsThere are really only three occasions where products are launched with no immediate business model:
- the service/product is a promotion for another service/product, and the sustainable business model relates to the other. Sometimes this might be giving away access to content, providing (digital) content free to encourage subsequent (hard) purchase (for example, Penguin giving away the first chapter of books) and is sometimes referred to as a ‘loss leader’. In most cases, the item supplied is promotional in nature
- the service is designed to generate audience and not, at this stage at least, focus on revenue. There are myriad examples of digital products and services where the creators made money when they sold (all or part of) their product – rather than through running it. These include YouTube, MySpace and Facebook to name but a few. In fact there is a strong view that venture capitalists are starting to look at different numbers – like numbers of viewers and users, rather than the strict dollar return. (Wired.com 2007: [http://www.wired.com/techbiz/startups/news/2007/12/monetize]). As Philip Bensaid, co-founder of Crusher said, ‘Creating a desirable product is disconnected from trying to monetize it’
- in sites provided ‘for the greater good’ where revenue is not the focus. While many young entrepreneurs don’t want to think about the money side, but rather the altruistic good of what they are doing, sustainability is important for digital products to remain available and open. There are digital content services supported by donation, government funding or corporate funding – but in many ways, these grants are a form of business model.
Selecting the right business modelThe right business model is the model which works for your project. Not every model fits every type of content, game or service, but at some point, someone has to pay to keep the service going – this will either be your audience or people who want to get access to your audience. In the following sections, we’ll firstly look at ways in which money is made, and then factors that impact on which business model is best for your project.
Generating Revenue – models and methods
TransactionThe most straightforward and simple of the business models is where consumers hand over money in return for something. The ‘something’ they buy can either be tangible (it exists) or intangible (access). Tangible does not always mean a hard product – the purchase of a music track for example is still a digital purchase (and only bits and bytes are bought) – but it is tangible in that it can be played. Transaction models work well for sales of digital things – mobile ringtones, mobile wallpapers, e-books, digital music, buying a skill for your character in a game, or even buying the game itself. They also works well for selling access to things, such as unlocking a site, opening up a new level in a game, buying an online magazine (webzine) or an online article.
Using a transaction to purchase a hard product has additional considerations such as warehousing, storage, delivery and returns. Amazon’s success is due in part to its solid warehousing and distribution network. The delivery of digital goods is considerably easier than the delivery of hard goods. Before adopting ‘transaction’ as your business model, consider two key things:
- How will customers pay and how will this payment be handled – listed on a credit card receipt, refunded, etc.? (Read the section below on Consumer Generated Revenue for further information.)
- If hard products are being sold, issues of stock, supply, distribution and delivery should be taken into account and these have an impact on viability of the business.
SubscriptionSubscription is where a customer enters into an agreement to make regular periodic payments in order to receive some form of benefit (product, access, etc.). Subscription is common as a business model in mobile – where content subscriptions and mobile TV subscriptions are offered to consumers. The subscription normally allows access to the purchased content – either unfettered over the time period of the subscription or limited to a maximum number of accesses over the relevant period. Unfettered access may be a monthly subscription to an online magazine, where the consumer may access the magazine and the changing content as often as they wish for no additional cost. Limited access may be for mobile TV which offers viewing of the mobile TV channels over the month, but with a cap on usage such as 15 minutes per session and a maximum of 200 minutes per month [http://my.bigpond.com/mobile/foxtel.jsp?id=61&sec=1].
Subscription is a common model in the mobile content space, notably where content is provided on-deck or in control of the carrier (see below under Mobile: On-deck or Off-deck). Carriers are then in a position to levy charges, including small charges, to the consumers through their telephone bill. Online subscription, while of key interest and apparently growing for niche social networks, remains a less common business model due to the complexity of payment methods. Where a dedicated community wants access limited to those who are truly interested in participating, subscription is seen as a way of deterring those who might join the site to take advantage of the community. Subscription is also seen as helping keep sites independent. Subscription can be mixed with transaction where a low subscription allows for access to standard services, and a single higher charge is levied for specific things such as viewing videos.
AdvertisingAdvertising is the most common form of monetisation, where the consumer is not expected to pay in money, but in attention and, potentially, brand loyalty. Where TV advertising is hard to quantify or accurately measure, Online it is possibly to determine the amount of time, attention and, more importantly, interest shown by consumers based on their response – increasingly advertisers are looking to pay based on this response, rather than simply on the ‘viewing figures’ for a website. This is referred to as ‘performance-based advertising’ in contrast to ‘brand advertising’, where the exposure of the brand on TV or the internet, is the aim (and revenue is accorded for exposure to the advertisement rather than the performance or response to the ad).
Advertising FormIn the digital space, advertising can take on one of many forms.
- Banner: A ribbon or larger image ad that can run across the top or bottom of a page, down the sides of a page, or even be positioned in the middle of a page. There are specific names for each of these forms (skyscrapers, islands, etc.) but they can be lumped together as ‘banners’. Banners can usually be clicked on by a user who would then be redirected to another site for information (the ‘call to action’).
- Text links: A line of text that performs the same function as a banner, but is text, in the form of a hyperlink. Text links can be positioned on a site specifically, sometimes in boxes designed to attract attention such as ‘Top 10 online TV downloads’ or ‘Top Cheap Travel sites’, or they can be served by an outside agency. Google AdSense is where text links are provided by Google, based on key words associated with your site.
- Pre/Post roll: Video ads that can run before (pre-roll) a piece of video content or after (post-roll) a piece of video content. The content can be interactive (click for redirection) but is often just a ‘brand’ message – more like a TV commercial.
- Overlays: Banners, text links or a variant that can be placed over an image or video and which have a single message with a call to action. For example, at the start of a video an overlay might be shown in the bottom third of the window which prompts you to ‘click here for cheaper home finance’.
- OTP (Over the Page): An intrusive form of advertising where the ad, usually a video of some sort, rolls out over the page from the side or top. They can usually be closed by clicking somewhere within the ad, but the close button might be hard to see.
- Interruptive or hijacking: The consumer is provided with an ad, and only an ad, rather than the content they selected. There is usually a button which allows them to ‘go directly to[site]’ but again, this might be hard to see.
Advertising models (types)Revenue from advertising also follows a series of models. The most common models that may be applied to any form of advertising are:
CPM (Cost Per thousand ‘M’): ‘M’ is the Roman numeral for 1,000, and this model is considered ‘brand’ advertising of the Internet (and mobile phone). The advertiser pays based on the number of thousand times the ad is served – but there is no guarantee that the consumer gives time or attention to the ad. CPM rates are usually quoted around $15–$20, but may achieve as much as $30 where the audience is likely to be motivated to a product such as flights on a travel site, or as little as $1 (JP Morgan Jan 2008: [https://mm.jpmorgan.com/stp/t/c.do?i=2082C248&u=a_p*d_170762.pdf*h_-3ohpnmv]).
CPC (Cost per Click): This is a performance-based measure where the advertiser pays based on the number of people who interact with the ad by clicking on it. The rates paid for CPC vary from $0.30 for generic searches that might or might not be purchased, such as ‘watch’ or ‘camera’, up to as much as $50 where the response is to something specific and where the link would likely be clicked only if the person were truly interested – such as ‘income protection insurance’. An important measure of the likely success of CPC versus CPM is the ‘Click through Rate’ (CTR), which is tracked by sites to determine how well a CPC is likely to do and how the audience to that site responds to click-through requests.
CPA (Cost per Acquisition): Taking it one step further from interacting with the ad by clicking on it, CPA is where the consumer actually makes a purchase or signs up to a service. Rates paid here are higher than just clicking on an ad, but CPA can be seen as an extension of this model.
RoS (Run of Site): This is like ‘distressed space’ adverting in newspapers, where ads are placed in whatever gaps remain unsold. The revenue is almost always paid as some form of performance-based payment (CPC or CPA) and rarely as CPM. The ads may be placed anywhere on a site.
SponsorshipSponsorship is where a single company pays for the right to be associated with a site (or a page or function within a site) for a defined period of time. It is akin to a type of ‘subscription’ where a single fee is paid for a period of time. Sponsorship normally includes the right to advertise, sometimes exclusively, and to associate the brand with the site (and the community engaged with the site).
Sponsorship can involve no money changing hands, but some services being provided (hosting, development, etc.), or can be up in the millions. It depends on how large the community for the site is (mobile or online); how engaged they are and how key a demographic for the sponsor this group is. Where the numbers to a site are not significant enough to warrant advertising, sponsorship may provide an income from the same potential source (brands, companies or agencies) but without the need to justify the numbers. This makes sponsorship an attractive ‘first model’ for many new digital content services.
Product placementProduct placement is almost a form of sponsorship as a single payment is usually made for the right to ‘appear’ for either the run of a content item or a period of time. Product placement can be either overt or subtle. Consumers are aware of brand placement in films like James Bond where the vodka martini was Smirnoff, the watch an Omega, the computer a Sony and the mobile phone a Nokia (oh, and a Sony Ericsson for the girl). It is important that the community engaging with the content be in the target demographic for the brand. Commonly, product placement will also include the same rights as sponsorship, such as category exclusive advertising (drinks, mobile phones, etc.) on the service.
Consumer-generated revenue?Before looking at the business models themselves, it is important to consider whether the consumer is paying directly, or if another company is effectively paying for access to the consumer’s interest generated in the digital product. Looking at this in reverse, it is significantly easier to collect money from a company where an agreement is in place with an existing arrangement where they pay on supply of an invoice, for services rendered.
Collecting money from consumers is a completely different ball game. How will money be collected from each individual consumer? Taking credit cards as the payment mechanism requires an arrangement with a financial agency (usually a bank), potentially an online secure server for the processing of the credit cards, and methods to refund as required. There are companies who provide online credit card processing services (payment gateways), but normally a merchant agreement is still required with a bank to allow the transactions to be deposited in the provider’s account. Two companies of interest are eWay [www.eway.com.au/] and PayPal [www.paypal.com.au/au]. PayPal is particularly interesting as they process credit card payments on behalf of clients with no direct merchant agreement of their own, and also handle direct bank debit – allowing customers without credit cards to still make online purchases [www.paypal.com/au/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_merchant-outside]. PayMate [www.paymate.com/] is an Australian competitor to PayPal and offers similar services.
Most credit card or direct debit payments have a minimum charge followed by a percentage of the transaction value. For example, the merchant fee (whether a bank or a payments provider) might be 50c per transaction plus 3% of the revenue, or it might be a percentage only – usually with a monthly fee for access to the service (banks normally provide in this manner). Basically, the nature in which charges are applied does not support the idea of ‘micro-billing’ – or billing for small amounts. Sites where there is a low value per consumer transaction will normally sell a higher value ‘pack’ to the consumer and then deduct from this pre-paid pack as purchases are made.
Another form of consumer-generated revenue is premium rate services (1900 numbers) either voice or SMS. These are forms of ‘merchant services’ where the merchant is the carrier and the charges are levied on a phone bill rather than through a credit card. It is important to note that the merchant fee levied by carriers for their part in the billing and collection of this revenue is dramatically higher than that from banks and credit card merchants. Revenue returned is between 70% of the amount paid by the consumer (where the price is high, for example $10) and 30% of the amount on lower values such as $0.55. In the case of premium rate SMS, charges are also levied for the actual SMS messages themselves, and normally a broker (gateway provider) needs to be used to provide access to all the mobile operators. A fee is charged for their services also.
Factors which impact on the modelSome business models rely on specific factors. For example, if you want to make money through usual online advertising, then you need to have a high volume of traffic and a clear understanding of what ads will appeal to your market. If you believe you will have a dedicated market and a strong view of the things they like and don’t like – then sponsorship is more appropriate than just advertising. If you think you’ve got the latest zeitgeist, then the audience is likely to be willing to pay to play (or participate). Below is an overview of the main factors that will have an impact on selecting the right business model. These factors will also help define your audience and your offering, and you should have an idea of what the answer is for each question.
The three types of content services addressed are games as a stand-alone group; digital content, which is an extension of a non-digital product (cross-media extension); and other forms of digital content (which are paying their own way).
The digital mediumThe two main delivery mediums considered will be Internet and mobile. There are specific business models in mobile which are different from those on the Internet, but most Internet models will also apply to mobile services.
The size of audienceAudience can be broken down into mass appeal – broad appeal to a large percentage either of a specific demographic or across the board – or niche appeal – more likely to appeal to a niche audience, possibly one specifically targeted (comic enthusiasts) or likely to be used only occasionally. This equates to the ‘head’ of the long tail (mass) or the tail (niche). There is definitely a ‘shoulder’ group also – where the niche is large or likely to generate cross over.
Demographic of audienceDemographic is the type of audience. A digital service which appeals to users between the ages of 14 and 34 is more likely to be picked up than one which targets 55+, simply because more young people are comfortable in the digital environment. Also, very young children might not have easy access to the Internet, or mobile phones, and where they do, this might be mediated by their parents. That said, don’t discount the ‘non-GenC’ groups, as the percentage of older and younger people online is growing rapidly. If your content appeals, people will work out both how to find it and how to use it.
Number of engagements and duration of eachAs mentioned, different numbers have a different level of importance to a service, and often determine its success. Specifically, the digital environment counts:
- each individual user who accesses your content once per counting period. When the individual person is counted, this is referred to as ‘unique viewer’ or UV, and when it is counted by the machine (browser) which accesses the content, this is referred to as ‘unique browser’ or UB. Think of this as how many people will access your content each period (usually a month)
- the number of pages that are accessed in total by all your users over this same period of time (usually a month). This is known as Page Views (PV). Based on these figures, the average number of pages looked at by each user is calculated by dividing the total number of pages (PV) by the number of unique users (UV) or PV/UV
- the number of times each user comes back to the site within the period. It may be that each user only views two pages, but they come back over ten times a month – this is a very important statistics as it looks at how engaging (or sticky) a service is, relative to the function of the site
- how long people spend accessing the information on the site. This is referred to as the ‘dwell time’ – and is a measure of how engaged (and leaning forward) people are with that site. Some sites are designed to have you in and out quickly (search, directories and guides) while others want to keep you there for a long time (news, video, games, etc.).
Mobile: On-deck or off-deck?Content on mobile phone services is usually provided in one of two ways. It can be provided by the carrier through their own menus on the screen, which is known as ‘on deck’ or ‘walled garden’ content; or it can be accessed outside of this closed environment either through a mobile URL (like a website address) or by sending a text message and getting back a link to the URL (mobile page). The more open services can usually be accessed from any carrier and are called ‘off-deck’ services.
If the service is provided on-deck, then a partnership is made with the mobile carrier to deliver it, usually with any consumer-generated revenue shared, or a fee paid by the carrier for access to the content. If the service is off-deck, then the billing is not usually done by the carrier and different models need to be considered.
Brand-compatible or independentSome content services work as branded content without negatively impacting the quality of the consumer engagement (in fact in some cases, can add to it, such as in games). The test is usually whether it makes sense or adds to the experience if you include the brand, or whether is just looks like advertising. Other content services wish to distance themselves from brands and be seen as independent. If the content is intended to be edgy, quirky or independent – it is usually not brand-compatible.
Limited life or ongoing serviceSome digital content is designed to be accessed over a specific period of time, or is of a specific length, which once consumed, ends the experience for that consumer. Some games have a limited life – you play until you win (e.g. first person shooter games), whereas others are ongoing (MMORGs in particular). Some content services are linked with a promotion for another product and expire once the other product has reached a certain stage – e.g. expanded narrative online stories, which are preludes to movies or season fillers for TV programs.
Getting your timing right – freemiumsIt is important to recognise that many people will not pay, in any form, for a service, content or product, which they have no real understanding of. Currently, ‘word of mouth’ is regarded as one of the most important viral promotional tools to help a product succeed. This is also known as ‘buzz’ or just ‘viral’. Building up enough ‘buzz’ to break though the ‘noise’ in the right demographic will lead to interest, which in turns leads to take-up of the service. This ‘buzz’ might be referrals from one person to another, recommendation to take up or trial the product, or just coverage in relevant and important blogs (or social network and media services).
One way to encourage interest in the content or product is to ‘give it away’ for a period of time, or give away elements as part of promoting the service. This is often referred to as the ‘free then fee’ or ‘freemiums’ model. See the Marketing and Distribution chapter for further elaboration on this. Once the service reaches a specific point, either in time or in usage, it is important that the right business model is ready to come into play in terms of generating revenue. Methods for this will be as outlined in the next section, but from the very beginning the future manner of generating revenue to create sustainability must be known, and must be explained to the early, non-paying users. This might be in the form of ‘first two months free’, or ‘free for three months to the first 50 people’ or even ‘first five levels of the game free’. If the revenue model is sprung on users without their knowledge at some arbitrary time (usually when the developer has run out money), there can be a community backlash.
Upgrades and enhancementsMany services allow for the payment of a premium (one-off, subscription, etc.) to allow additional things to happen. In the case of some services, it may be paying to ‘rent’ some digital products that your characters may take advantage of; to buy some (digital) tools or services; to buy skills (such as magic); or even to buy the next chapter in a story.
Enhancing the content may be as simple as allowing the user access to the next chapter, or may be about getting video related to the product, or unlocking additional levels in games. The manner of charging for these services may be levied on the user, and this is commonly accepted, or funded through alternate methods, like product placement or advertising.
Some other terms
Affiliate marketingAnother way of looking at CPC or CPA models can be referred to as ‘Affiliate Marketing’ – where sites (often with complementary services) agree to work with each other to their mutual advantage. It may be in the form of banner exchange – where sites host a banner ad for an affiliate site with payment based on some performance-based element. This is very useful when the affiliate model can be used to offer enhanced services to their users, and receive revenue in return.
Infomediary servicesInfomediary services refer to services that are intermediary (go-between) for sites, but can have a revenue impact. ‘Member get Member’ schemes for example can be ways of rewarding your existing members (usually with intangible or digital-only items) for increasing the user base to a site. This may be member referrals to other sites as well as the host site. Another infomediary service is the sale of members’ lists (databases) for marketing purposes. While this has some issues in Australia due to the Spam Act (2003), many agencies are interested in marketing directly to a site’s user base in some form of direct contact (email) rather than just through advertising. In other countries, the actual member lists can be ‘sold’ to third parties.
Some specific mobile considerations
On-deck servicesWith on-deck services, supplied through the carrier created and promoted portal, the business model is usually determined in conjunction with the carrier. The carrier may wish to offer the service to consumers for free, and they would normally pay the content provider a fee for use of their content and/or service. They may charge a fee, either one-off, ad hoc or subscription, for the service and they would normally share this with the content provider; or the carrier might place advertising on the site – which would possibly (but rarely) be shared with the content provider, or more likely retained by the carrier with a fee paid to the content provider as in the first case.
Off-deck servicesBetween the carrier controlled and supported on-deck and the ‘wide world’ of the open (mobile) Internet, most carriers also offer a supported or ‘friendly off-deck’. In this case, the service is still run as an off-deck service in terms of revenue, being not supported or promoted by the carrier; however the carrier might be willing to undertake some billing for the service. As carriers value their ‘real estate’, they might also levy a premium to the content provider for decent (high) placement on this quasi off-deck area. Sites in this limbo space are usually provided as links from the carrier’s walled garden, but the data is charged to the consumer and the sites are clearly identified as not being provided by the carrier. In the case of off-deck services, revenue generation is still needed and the issues of the wider Internet come into play here.
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